Treatment of cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases described by uncontrolled division and spread of cells. Cancer therapyis targeted to cure disease, prolong life, and improve the quality of remaining life after the diagnosis of the same. Curative treatment options exist for about one third of all cancer cases, predominantlyin breast, cervical and oral cancers. Treatment of cancer can encompass any of several modalities which are often combined to eradicate the traces of cancer cells. Choice of cancer treatment is swayed by several factors that include the characteristics of cancer, the stage and location; overall patient's condition; and whether to cure cancer or prevent them from spreading to adjacent areas. Depending on these factors, the following choices are available:

1) Surgery is the effective cancer therapy if a tumour has not metastasized. When the primary tumour has extensively spreadto adjacent normal tissues other treatment options such as chemo or radiation therapy can be used to delay or reduce the tumour.

2) ) aRadiation therapy can cure many cancers predominantly those that are localized or that can be completely covered within the radiation field. It employs high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells by obstructing their growth. Radiation therapy can provide substantial palliation when cure is not possible.

3) Chemotherapy involves use of drugs to destroy cancer cells; stop their growth or alleviate cancer pain. It involves administering one or more "anti-cancer drugs" intravenously, by injection into a body cavity or orally. Hence chemotherapy is considered as a systemic cancer therapy unlike radiation or surgery. Depending on the mode of action, there are different categories of chemotherapy agents available. Number of approved new molecules for the treatment of cancer by the Food and Drug Administration has substantially increased during last few years and are available online. To win the fight against cancer, it is necessary not only to develop treatments to kill all cancer (stem) cells efficiently, by using the correct combination and schedule of chemotherapeutic agents, but also to attempt to stimulate an immune response so that the patient immune system can keep residual tumour cells in check.

4))Hormonal therapy is the use of medication to block or interfere with the production of hormones that aids in the development of certain cancers such as breast, prostate and endometrial cancer. The lack of an effective cancer therapy modality for many inoperable solid malignancies led to the search of new therapeutic options.

5) Biotherapy, also called immunotherapy for cancer, is a pioneering cancer therapy that helps the immune system to combat its own cancerous cells. This therapyincludes administration ofmonoclonal antibodies, interferon, interleukin, cytokines and dendritic cell vaccines. All of these targetonly cancer cells and minimize damage to normal healthy cells. Immunotherapy with dendritic cells (DC) has evolved as a treatment of choice, since these have better specificity, improved efficacy, less side effects as compared to the standard chemotherapy regimens. Dendritic Cells are administered either as adjuvants vaccines or as a direct therapy to induce immunity against cancer patients in whom immune-surveillance had failed. With early detection, timely diagnosis and adequate treatment with Dendritic cell based cancer therapy, the quality of life and survival of a significant number of cancer patients can be saved or prolonged considerably. Dendritic Cell based immunotherapeutic Treatments is the need of the hour and holds much promise for the management of Cancer patients.